FreeBSD安全性更新和編譯核心

如果從未編譯過核心或正要編譯新的核心,在此之前可以先做安全性更新。先編輯設定檔,把要fetch的server改成台灣的mirror server︰

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# ee /etc/freebsd-update.conf

ServerName update.tw.FreeBSD.org
下載安全性更新檔︰
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# freebsd-update fetch

安裝安全性更新檔︰
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# freebsd-update install

重新開機,再下載一次安全性更新檔確認是否更新完成,會出現No updates needed to update system to 8.2-RELEASE-p2.訊息。是否需要重新編譯核心,到FreeBSD Security Advisories檢查更新項目,搜尋Recompile your kernel這個字串。其他關於freebsd-update參數和做法請參考ohaha的freebsd-update

編譯核心的方法參考twbsd的編譯核心,先安裝kernel原始碼︰

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# sysinstall

選擇[Configure] > [Distribution] > [src] > [sys] > 安裝。因為只有安裝/usr/src/sys,所以只能選擇第一個方法編譯。

把設定檔複製到新目錄,改名和連結︰

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# cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
# cp GENERIC /root/NEW_KERNEL
# ln -s /root/NEW_KERNEL

編輯設定檔︰
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# ee /root/NEW_KERNEL

以下是我的設定檔內容︰如果需要其他功能或硬體(例如防火牆、NAT或音效卡等等),請自行加入︰
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#
# GENERIC -- Generic kernel configuration file for FreeBSD/i386
#
# For more information on this file, please read the config(5) manual page,
# and/or the handbook section on Kernel Configuration Files:
#
# http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig-config.html
#
# The handbook is also available locally in /usr/share/doc/handbook
# if you've installed the doc distribution, otherwise always see the
# FreeBSD World Wide Web server (http://www.FreeBSD.org/) for the
# latest information.
#
# An exhaustive list of options and more detailed explanations of the
# device lines is also present in the ../../conf/NOTES and NOTES files.
# If you are in doubt as to the purpose or necessity of a line, check first
# in NOTES.
#
# $FreeBSD: src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC,v 1.519.2.12.2.1 2010/12/21 17:09:25 kensmith Exp $
#cpu I486_CPU
#cpu I586_CPU
cpu I686_CPU
ident NEW_KERNEL
# To statically compile in device wiring instead of /boot/device.hints
#hints "GENERIC.hints" # Default places to look for devices.
# Use the following to compile in values accessible to the kernel
# through getenv() (or kenv(1) in userland). The format of the file
# is 'variable=value', see kenv(1)
#
# env "GENERIC.env"
#makeoptions DEBUG=-g # Build kernel with gdb(1) debug symbols
options SCHED_ULE # ULE scheduler
options PREEMPTION # Enable kernel thread preemption
options INET # InterNETworking
options INET6 # IPv6 communications protocols
options SCTP # Stream Control Transmission Protocol
options FFS # Berkeley Fast Filesystem
options SOFTUPDATES # Enable FFS soft updates support
options UFS_ACL # Support for access control lists
options UFS_DIRHASH # Improve performance on big directories
options UFS_GJOURNAL # Enable gjournal-based UFS journaling
options MD_ROOT # MD is a potential root device
options NFSCLIENT # Network Filesystem Client
options NFSSERVER # Network Filesystem Server
options NFSLOCKD # Network Lock Manager
options NFS_ROOT # NFS usable as /, requires NFSCLIENT
options MSDOSFS # MSDOS Filesystem
options CD9660 # ISO 9660 Filesystem
options PROCFS # Process filesystem (requires PSEUDOFS)
options PSEUDOFS # Pseudo-filesystem framework
options GEOM_PART_GPT # GUID Partition Tables.
options GEOM_LABEL # Provides labelization
options COMPAT_43TTY # BSD 4.3 TTY compat (sgtty)
options COMPAT_FREEBSD4 # Compatible with FreeBSD4
options COMPAT_FREEBSD5 # Compatible with FreeBSD5
options COMPAT_FREEBSD6 # Compatible with FreeBSD6
options COMPAT_FREEBSD7 # Compatible with FreeBSD7
#options SCSI_DELAY=5000 # Delay (in ms) before probing SCSI
#options KTRACE # ktrace(1) support
options STACK # stack(9) support
options SYSVSHM # SYSV-style shared memory
options SYSVMSG # SYSV-style message queues
options SYSVSEM # SYSV-style semaphores
options P1003_1B_SEMAPHORES # POSIX-style semaphores
options _KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B real-time extensions
options PRINTF_BUFR_SIZE=128 # Prevent printf output being interspersed.
options KBD_INSTALL_CDEV # install a CDEV entry in /dev
options HWPMC_HOOKS # Necessary kernel hooks for hwpmc(4)
options AUDIT # Security event auditing
options MAC # TrustedBSD MAC Framework
options FLOWTABLE # per-cpu routing cache
#options KDTRACE_HOOKS # Kernel DTrace hooks
options INCLUDE_CONFIG_FILE # Include this file in kernel
options KDB # Kernel debugger related code
options KDB_TRACE # Print a stack trace for a panic
# To make an SMP kernel, the next two lines are needed
#options SMP # Symmetric MultiProcessor Kernel
#device apic # I/O APIC
# CPU frequency control
device cpufreq
# Bus support.
#device acpi
#device eisa
device pci
# Floppy drives
#device fdc
# ATA and ATAPI devices
device ata
device atadisk # ATA disk drives
#device ataraid # ATA RAID drives
device atapicd # ATAPI CDROM drives
#device atapifd # ATAPI floppy drives
#device atapist # ATAPI tape drives
#options ATA_STATIC_ID # Static device numbering
# SCSI Controllers
#device ahb # EISA AHA1742 family
#device ahc # AHA2940 and onboard AIC7xxx devices
#options AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields in debug
# output. Adds ~128k to driver.
#device ahd # AHA39320/29320 and onboard AIC79xx devices
#options AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields in debug
# output. Adds ~215k to driver.
#device amd # AMD 53C974 (Tekram DC-390(T))
#device hptiop # Highpoint RocketRaid 3xxx series
#device isp # Qlogic family
#device ispfw # Firmware for QLogic HBAs- normally a module
#device mpt # LSI-Logic MPT-Fusion
#device ncr # NCR/Symbios Logic
#device sym # NCR/Symbios Logic (newer chipsets + those of `ncr')
#device trm # Tekram DC395U/UW/F DC315U adapters
#device adv # Advansys SCSI adapters
#device adw # Advansys wide SCSI adapters
#device aha # Adaptec 154x SCSI adapters
#device aic # Adaptec 15[012]x SCSI adapters, AIC-6[23]60.
#device bt # Buslogic/Mylex MultiMaster SCSI adapters
#device ncv # NCR 53C500
#device nsp # Workbit Ninja SCSI-3
#device stg # TMC 18C30/18C50
# SCSI peripherals
device scbus # SCSI bus (required for SCSI)
#device ch # SCSI media changers
device da # Direct Access (disks)
#device sa # Sequential Access (tape etc)
#device cd # CD
#device pass # Passthrough device (direct SCSI access)
#device ses # SCSI Environmental Services (and SAF-TE)
# RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem
#device amr # AMI MegaRAID
#device arcmsr # Areca SATA II RAID
#device asr # DPT SmartRAID V, VI and Adaptec SCSI RAID
#device ciss # Compaq Smart RAID 5*
#device dpt # DPT Smartcache III, IV - See NOTES for options
#device hptmv # Highpoint RocketRAID 182x
#device hptrr # Highpoint RocketRAID 17xx, 22xx, 23xx, 25xx
#device iir # Intel Integrated RAID
#device ips # IBM (Adaptec) ServeRAID
#device mly # Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID
#device twa # 3ware 9000 series PATA/SATA RAID
# RAID controllers
#device aac # Adaptec FSA RAID
#device aacp # SCSI passthrough for aac (requires CAM)
#device ida # Compaq Smart RAID
#device mfi # LSI MegaRAID SAS
#device mlx # Mylex DAC960 family
#device pst # Promise Supertrak SX6000
#device twe # 3ware ATA RAID
# atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse
device atkbdc # AT keyboard controller
device atkbd # AT keyboard
device psm # PS/2 mouse
device kbdmux # keyboard multiplexer
device vga # VGA video card driver
device splash # Splash screen and screen saver support
# syscons is the default console driver, resembling an SCO console
device sc
device agp # support several AGP chipsets
# Power management support (see NOTES for more options)
#device apm
# Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.
device pmtimer
# PCCARD (PCMCIA) support
# PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support
#device cbb # cardbus (yenta) bridge
#device pccard # PC Card (16-bit) bus
#device cardbus # CardBus (32-bit) bus
# Serial (COM) ports
#device uart # Generic UART driver
# Parallel port
#device ppc
#device ppbus # Parallel port bus (required)
#device lpt # Printer
#device plip # TCP/IP over parallel
#device ppi # Parallel port interface device
#device vpo # Requires scbus and da
# If you've got a "dumb" serial or parallel PCI card that is
# supported by the puc(4) glue driver, uncomment the following
# line to enable it (connects to sio, uart and/or ppc drivers):
#device puc
# PCI Ethernet NICs.
#device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (``Tulip'')
#device em # Intel PRO/1000 Gigabit Ethernet Family
#device igb # Intel PRO/1000 PCIE Server Gigabit Family
#device ixgb # Intel PRO/10GbE Ethernet Card
#device le # AMD Am7900 LANCE and Am79C9xx PCnet
#device ti # Alteon Networks Tigon I/II gigabit Ethernet
#device txp # 3Com 3cR990 (``Typhoon'')
#device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (``Vortex'')
# PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.
# NOTE: Be sure to keep the 'device miibus' line in order to use these NICs!
device miibus # MII bus support
#device ae # Attansic/Atheros L2 FastEthernet
#device age # Attansic/Atheros L1 Gigabit Ethernet
#device alc # Atheros AR8131/AR8132 Ethernet
#device ale # Atheros AR8121/AR8113/AR8114 Ethernet
#device bce # Broadcom BCM5706/BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet
#device bfe # Broadcom BCM440x 10/100 Ethernet
#device bge # Broadcom BCM570xx Gigabit Ethernet
#device dc # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
#device et # Agere ET1310 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet
#device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
#device jme # JMicron JMC250 Gigabit/JMC260 Fast Ethernet
#device lge # Level 1 LXT1001 gigabit Ethernet
#device msk # Marvell/SysKonnect Yukon II Gigabit Ethernet
device nfe # nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet
#device nge # NatSemi DP83820 gigabit Ethernet
#device nve # nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet Networking
#device pcn # AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100 (precedence over 'le')
#device re # RealTek 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
#device rl # RealTek 8129/8139
#device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (``Starfire'')
#device sge # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS190/191
#device sis # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
#device sk # SysKonnect SK-984x & SK-982x gigabit Ethernet
#device ste # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
#device stge # Sundance/Tamarack TC9021 gigabit Ethernet
#device tl # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
#device tx # SMC EtherPower II (83c170 ``EPIC'')
#device vge # VIA VT612x gigabit Ethernet
#device vr # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
#device wb # Winbond W89C840F
device xl # 3Com 3c90x (``Boomerang'', ``Cyclone'')
# ISA Ethernet NICs. pccard NICs included.
#device cs # Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0 NIC
# 'device ed' requires 'device miibus'
#device ed # NE[12]000, SMC Ultra, 3c503, DS8390 cards
#device ex # Intel EtherExpress Pro/10 and Pro/10+
#device ep # Etherlink III based cards
#device fe # Fujitsu MB8696x based cards
#device ie # EtherExpress 8/16, 3C507, StarLAN 10 etc.
#device sn # SMC's 9000 series of Ethernet chips
#device xe # Xircom pccard Ethernet
# Wireless NIC cards
#device wlan # 802.11 support
#options IEEE80211_DEBUG # enable debug msgs
#options IEEE80211_AMPDU_AGE # age frames in AMPDU reorder q's
#options IEEE80211_SUPPORT_MESH # enable 802.11s draft support
#device wlan_wep # 802.11 WEP support
#device wlan_ccmp # 802.11 CCMP support
#device wlan_tkip # 802.11 TKIP support
#device wlan_amrr # AMRR transmit rate control algorithm
#device an # Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
#device ath # Atheros pci/cardbus NIC's
#device ath_hal # pci/cardbus chip support
#options AH_SUPPORT_AR5416 # enable AR5416 tx/rx descriptors
#device ath_rate_sample # SampleRate tx rate control for ath
#device ral # Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
#device wi # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
#device wl # Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.
# Pseudo devices.
device loop # Network loopback
device random # Entropy device
device ether # Ethernet support
device vlan # 802.1Q VLAN support
device tun # Packet tunnel.
device pty # BSD-style compatibility pseudo ttys
device md # Memory "disks"
device gif # IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling
device faith # IPv6-to-IPv4 relaying (translation)
device firmware # firmware assist module
# The `bpf' device enables the Berkeley Packet Filter.
# Be aware of the administrative consequences of enabling this!
# Note that 'bpf' is required for DHCP.
device bpf # Berkeley packet filter
# USB support
options USB_DEBUG # enable debug msgs
device uhci # UHCI PCI->USB interface
device ohci # OHCI PCI->USB interface
device ehci # EHCI PCI->USB interface (USB 2.0)
device usb # USB Bus (required)
#device udbp # USB Double Bulk Pipe devices
device uhid # "Human Interface Devices"
device ukbd # Keyboard
#device ulpt # Printer
device umass # Disks/Mass storage - Requires scbus and da
device ums # Mouse
#device urio # Diamond Rio 500 MP3 player
# USB Serial devices
#device u3g # USB-based 3G modems (Option, Huawei, Sierra)
#device uark # Technologies ARK3116 based serial adapters
#device ubsa # Belkin F5U103 and compatible serial adapters
#device uftdi # For FTDI usb serial adapters
#device uipaq # Some WinCE based devices
#device uplcom # Prolific PL-2303 serial adapters
#device uslcom # SI Labs CP2101/CP2102 serial adapters
#device uvisor # Visor and Palm devices
#device uvscom # USB serial support for DDI pocket's PHS
# USB Ethernet, requires miibus
#device aue # ADMtek USB Ethernet
#device axe # ASIX Electronics USB Ethernet
#device cdce # Generic USB over Ethernet
#device cue # CATC USB Ethernet
#device kue # Kawasaki LSI USB Ethernet
#device rue # RealTek RTL8150 USB Ethernet
#device udav # Davicom DM9601E USB
# USB Wireless
#device rum # Ralink Technology RT2501USB wireless NICs
#device uath # Atheros AR5523 wireless NICs
#device ural # Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs
#device zyd # ZyDAS zb1211/zb1211b wireless NICs
# FireWire support
#device firewire # FireWire bus code
#device sbp # SCSI over FireWire (Requires scbus and da)
#device fwe # Ethernet over FireWire (non-standard!)
#device fwip # IP over FireWire (RFC 2734,3146)
#device dcons # Dumb console driver
#device dcons_crom # Configuration ROM for dcons

準備編譯核心,config產生一個編譯使用的資料夾︰
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# cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
# config NEW_KERNEL

進入編譯資料夾︰
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# cd ../compile/NEW_KERNEL/

檢查相依性是否有錯誤︰
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# make depend

開始編譯︰
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# make

編譯完成,安裝新核心︰
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# make install

刪除編譯產生的檔案︰
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# cd / ; rm -rf /usr/src/sys/i386/compile/NEW_KERNEL

重新開機,如果新核心無法開機完成,在開機選單按6(loader mode),輸入指令用舊核心開機︰
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OK unload
OK boot /boot/kernel.old

編譯核心有幾點要注意︰
1.對該電腦硬體裝置一定要有所了解,如果編輯設定檔選擇錯誤,編譯時可能會有錯誤,或是用新核心無法開機完成。
2.設定檔硬體相依性一定要選擇正確,否則編譯到一半時會出現錯誤。例如選擇某些網卡(大多為PCI和USB介面),就一定要加入mii bus;選擇USB隨身碟,就一定要加入scbus和da。
3.使用第二種方法編譯時出現訊息︰make: don't know how to make buildkernel. Stop,表示原始碼安裝不完全,所以要安裝除了base、sys,還有其他會用到的原始碼,這樣才能編譯。
4.第一個編譯方法,自加參數錯誤(例如音效卡),在︰

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# config NEW_KERNEL

就會出現錯誤訊息。

2011/09/30︰如果要用第二種方法,需要安裝完整的source tree,先複製和編輯設定檔︰

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# cp /usr/share/examples/cvsup/stable-supfile /root
# ee /root/stable-supfile

此處請先詳讀CVSUP-更新 Security Patch談談FreeBSD如何更新系統


*default host=CHANGE_THIS.FreeBSD.org
改成
*default host=cvsup.tw.FreeBSD.org


*default release=cvs tag=RELENG_8
改成
*default release=cvs tag=RELENG_8_2

開始安裝或更新source tree︰

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# csup -g -L 2 /root/stable-supfile

另外/usr/src/Makefile有寫:

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# buildworld - Rebuild *everything*, including glue to help do upgrades.
# installworld - Install everything built by "buildworld".
# world - buildworld + installworld, no kernel.
# buildkernel - Rebuild the kernel and the kernel-modules.
# installkernel - Install the kernel and the kernel-modules.

由此可知,安裝更新整個source tree,表示整個基本系統都更新了(userland + kernel),所以得做buildworld和buildkernel,再installkernel和installworld。

先編譯系統程式︰

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# cd /usr/src
# make buildworld

編譯核心:
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# make buildkernel KERNCONF=NEW_KERNEL

重新開機,進入單人模式,再安裝核心:
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# mount -a
# cd /usr/src
# make installkernel KERNCONF=NEW_KERNEL

安裝系統程式:
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# make installworld

刪除/usr/obj暫存檔︰
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# cd /usr/obj
# chflags -R noschg *
# rm -rf *

重開機使用新核心開機,檢查版號是否有更新security patch。

如果只是做安全性更新,一樣安裝更新取得完整的source tree(或用sysinstall安裝),但是使用freebsd-update抓binary直接安裝到系統裡,再使用第二種方法編譯核心就可以完成,就不需要buildworld和installworld,因為真的要等非常久的時間。但有些即使使用freebsd-update install,還是會顯示需要新增檔案到/usr/src(記得更新保留/usr/src),應該都是要buildworld和installworld(請到FreeBSD Security Advisories更新項目內,搜尋Recompile the operating system字串)。以上任一更新和編譯方法,請依照你的實際狀況判斷使用。